The body needs a continuous supply of energy to keep alive. Energy additives use for breathing, circulation, growth and keeping warm, enabling the body to move, the more active (energetic) the person, the more energy will be used. This energy all comes from food.
Energy Additives form Food
Energy additives a particular food contains measured in kilocalorie or Kilojoules:
1 kcal- 4.2 kJ (approx.) 1000 kJ = 1 MJ (megajoule) = 239 kcal.
In everyday language, the `kilo’ part of kilocalorie often left off. The same often happens to the word kilojoules. It is technically inaccurate to use calorie and joule in this way and can be confusing.
Different foods contain different amounts of energy per unit of weight. That they have different energy values. Foods that have a high energy value are those which contain little water and a high proportion of fat or sugar.
Daily Intake of Energy
Intake of energy has estimated that, on average. The daily intakes of energy shown in the table required. These figures apply to boys, girls require slightly less. The average daily intake for women is increased from 9.2 MJ (2200 kcal) to 10.0 MJ (2100 kcal) when pregnant and to 11.3 Mj (2700 kcal) when breastfeeding.
Many foods contain energy additives. Additives substances that added to food to preserve it or to change it in some way. Some additives are natural substances, pertain form fruit, lecithin from soya beans. Others are synthetic (man-made), potassium mitral, atrazine
Additives are controlled by Government Regulation and it is illegal to put anything in food which will injure health. Very few people are allergic to one or more additives, atrazine. It should be remembered that more people are allergic to certain natural food strawberries of shellfish.
All manufactured food is required to have a label showing the ingredients contained in the food, listed in the order of the quantity (by weight) present, starting with the largest. The additives identified by name or number. Those numbers with an ‘E’ (E number) have been approved for use in food by the European Economic Community (EEC) Additives are usually grouped according to their function. Some examples are given below.
These protect food against microbes. They prevent microbes from spoiling the food, which increases its storage life and helps protect against food poisoning. Examples are:
- Sorbic acid
- Sulfur dioxide
- Sodium metabisulphite
- Potassium nitrate.
Sugar, salt, vinegar, and alcohol use for preserving food do not regard additives.
Antioxidants for Energy Additives
These stop fatty foods from going rancid and protect vitamins contained in the food from being destroyed. Examples are:
- Synthetic alpha-tocopherol
- L- ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
- Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
- Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
Emulsifiers and Stabilizers
Emulsifiers enable ingredients to mixed together that would normally separate. fat or oil with water and stabilizers prevent substances which have been mixed together from separating again. Examples of substances which are emulsifiers and stabilizers are:
- Locust bean gum (from carob beans)
- Gum arabic (from acacia trees).
Coloring for Energy Additives
Additives used to make food more colorful and attractive or to change its color. Examples are:
- Tartrazine – yellow chemical
- Curcumin – yellow extract of turmeric roots.
- Caramel – burnt sugar
- Carotene (alpha, beta, or gamma, called ‘annatto’)- orange-yellow color, form carrots. Carotene becomes vitamin A in the body.
Flavoring Energy Additives
There are about 3000 flavorings. only tiny amounts used in comparison with other additives. They are not at present require to the individual name of the packaging of foods. Flavorings include herbs and spices.
These stimulate the taste buds and make food taste stronger. An example is:
- Monosodium glutamate (MSG, sodium hydrogen E0glutamate)
These stop lumps forming in powdery foods an example is:
- Silicon dioxide (Silica).
These used in low-calorie food products and in diabetic food. Examples are: